POMO – AEAS精读训练 (10-12年级)

The Native Americans of northern California were highly skilled at basketry, using the reeds, grasses, barks, and roots they found around them to fashion articles of all sorts and sizes — not only trays, containers, and cooking pots, but hats, boats, fish traps, baby carriers, and ceremonial objects.

Of all these experts, none excelled the Pomo — a group who lived on or near the coast during the 1800’s, and whose descendants continue to live in parts of the same region to this day. They made baskets three feet in diameter and others no bigger than a thimble. The Pomo people were masters of decoration. Some of their baskets were completely covered with shell pendants; others with feathers that made the baskets’ surfaces as soft as the breasts of birds. Moreover, the Pomo people made use of more weaving techniques than did their neighbors. Most groups made all their basketwork by twining — the twisting of a flexible horizontal material, called a weft, around stiffer vertical strands of material, the warp. Others depended primarily on coiling — a process in which a continuous coil of stiff material is held in the desired shape with tight wrapping of flexible strands. Only the Pomo people used both processes with equal ease and frequency. In addition, they made use of four distinct variations on the basic twining process, often employing more than one of them in a single article.

Although a wide variety of materials was available, the Pomo people used only a few. The warp was always made of willow, and the most commonly used weft was sedge root, a woody fiber that could easily be separated into strands no thicker than a thread. For color, the Pomo people used the bark of redbud for their twined work and dyed bullrush root for black in coiled work. Though other materials were sometimes used, these four were the staples in their finest basketry.

If the basketry materials used by the Pomo people were limited, the designs were amazingly varied. Every Pomo basketmaker knew how to produce from fifteen to twenty distinct patterns that could be combined in a number of different ways.

译文:

加利福尼亚州北部的印第安人在篮筐上非常熟练,使用他们在周围发现的芦苇,草,树皮和根来制作各种各样大小的物品 - 不仅是托盘,容器和烹饪锅,还有帽子,船,鱼陷阱,婴儿背带和礼仪物品。

在所有这些专家中,没有人能够超越Pomo--在1800年代期间居住在海岸附近的一群人,其后代继续生活在同一地区的部分地区至今。他们制作了直径3英尺的篮子,其他篮子不比顶针大。波莫人是装饰大师。他们的一些篮子完全被贝壳吊坠覆盖;其他羽毛使得篮子的表面像鸟的乳房一样柔软。此外,Pomo人使用了比他们的邻居更多的编织技术。大多数团体通过缠绕来制作他们所有的编织品 - 一种柔软的水平材料(称为纬线)的扭曲,围绕着更硬的垂直材料,即经线。其他主要依赖于卷取 - 这是一种将连续的硬质材料卷保持在所需形状并紧密缠绕柔性股线的过程。只有Pomo人员同样容易和频率地使用这两个过程。此外,他们在基本缠绕过程中使用了四种不同的变体,通常在一篇文章中使用多于一种。

尽管有各种各样的材料,但Pomo人只使用了少数材料。经纱总是由柳树制成,最常用的纬纱是莎草根,一种木质纤维,很容易被分成不比线粗的股线。对于颜色,Pomo人们使用紫红色的树皮进行缠绕工作,并在盘绕的工作中将黑色染成黑色根。虽然有时使用其他材料,但这四种材料是其最好的篮筐中的主食。

如果Pomo人使用的篮筐材料有限,那么设计就会异常多变。每个Pomo篮子制造商都知道如何生产15到20种不同的图案,这些图案可以通过多种不同的方式组合在一起。