The term “Hudson River school” was applied to the foremost representatives of nineteenth-century North American landscape painting. Apparently unknown during the golden days of the American landscape movement, which began around 1850 and lasted until the late 1860’s, the Hudson River school seems to have emerged in the 1870’s as a direct result of the struggle between the old and the new generations of artists, each to assert its own style as the representative American art. The older painters, most of whom were born before 1835, practiced in a mode often self-taught and monopolized by landscape subject matter and were securely established in and fostered by the reigning American art organization, the National Academy of Design. The younger painters returning home from training in Europe worked more with figural subject matter and in a bold and impressionistic technique; their prospects for patronage in their own country were uncertain, and they sought to attract it by attaining academic recognition in New York. One of the results of the conflict between the two factions was that what in previous years had been referred to as the “American”, “native”, or, occasionally, “New York” school — the most representative school of American art in any genre — had by 1890 become firmly established in the minds of critics and public alike as the Hudson River school.
The sobriquet was first applied around 1879. While it was not intended as flattering, it was hardly inappropriate. The Academicians at whom it was aimed had worked and socialized in New York, the Hudson’s port city, and had painted the river and its shores with varying frequency. Most important, perhaps, was that they had all maintained with a certain fidelity a manner of technique and composition consistent with those of America’s first popular landscape artist, Thomas Cole, who built a career painting the Catskill Mountain scenery bordering the Hudson River. A possible implication in the term applied to the group of landscapists was that many of them had, like Cole, lived on or near the banks of the Hudson. Further, the river had long served as the principal route to other sketching grounds favored by the Academicians, particularly the Adirondacks and the mountains of Vermont and New Hampshire.
“哈德逊河学校”一词适用于十九世纪北美风景画的最重要代表。在1850年左右开始并持续到1860年代末的美国景观运动的黄金时期，显然不为人知的是，哈德逊河学校似乎在1870年出现，这是新旧艺术家之间斗争的直接结果。 ，每个人都以自己的风格为代表的美国艺术。年龄较大的画家，他们大部分出生于1835年之前，他们以一种经常自学成才并以景观主题垄断的方式进行实践，并由美国国家设计学院安全地建立并培养。从欧洲培训回国的年轻画家更多地使用图形主题和大胆的印象派技巧;他们在自己国家的赞助前景不确定，他们试图通过在纽约获得学术认可来吸引它。两派之间冲突的结果之一是前几年曾被称为“美国人”，“本土人”或偶尔称为“纽约”学校 - 这是美国最具代表性的艺术学派。流派 - 到1890年，在哈德逊河学校的评论家和公众的心目中已经牢固地建立起来。