Artistic creation – aeas精读训练 (10-12年级)
Perhaps the most obvious way artistic creation reflects how people live is by mirroring the environment — the materials and technologies available to a culture. Stone, wood, tree bark, clay, and sand are generally available materials. In addition, depending on the locality, other resources may be accessible: shells, horns, gold, copper, and silver. The different uses to which societies put these materials are of interest to anthropologists who may ask, for example, why people choose to use clay and not copper when both items are available. Although there are no conclusive answers yet, the way in which a society views its environment is sometimes apparent in its choice and use of artistic materials. The use of certain metals, for example, may be reserved for ceremonial objects of special importance. Or the belief in the supernatural powers of a stone or tree may cause a sculptor to be sensitive to that material.
What is particularly meaningful to anthropologist is the realization that although the materials available to a society may to some extent limit or influence what it can do artistically, the materials by no means determine what is done. Why do the artists in Japanese society rake sand into patterns; and the artists in Roman society melt sand to form glass? Moreover, even when the same material is used in the same way by members of different societies, the form or style of the work varies enormously from culture to culture. A society may simply choose to represent objects or phenomena that are important to its population. An examination of the art of the Middle Ages tells us something about the medieval preoccupation with theological doctrine. In addition to revealing the primary concerns of a society, the content of that society’s art may also reflect the culture’s social stratification.
也许艺术创作最明显的方式反映了人们的生活方式是通过反映环境 - 文化可用的材料和技术。石，木，树皮，粘土和沙子通常是可用的材料。此外，根据当地情况，可以访问其他资源：贝壳，角，金，铜和银。社会对这些材料的不同用途是人类学家感兴趣的，例如，人们可能会问，为什么人们选择使用粘土而不是铜，当这两种物品都可用时。虽然目前还没有确定的答案，但社会对环境的看法有时在其选择和使用艺术材料方面显而易见。例如，某些金属的使用可以保留用于特别重要的礼仪物品。或者相信石头或树木的超自然力量可能会使雕塑家对这种材料敏感。 对人类学家来说特别有意义的是认识到，虽然社会可用的材料可能在某种程度上限制或影响它在艺术上的作用，但这些材料决不会决定做什么。为什么日本社会的艺术家们将沙子变成了模式;罗马社会的艺术家将沙子融化成玻璃？而且，即使不同社会的成员以相同的方式使用相同的材料，工作的形式或风格也因文化而异。社会可以简单地选择代表对其人口重要的物体或现象。对中世纪艺术的考察告诉我们中世纪对神学教义的关注。除了揭示社会的主要关注点之外，该社会艺术的内容也可能反映了文化的社会分层。