Philadelphia – aeas精读 (Y10-12)
As Philadelphia grew from a small town into a city in the first half of the eighteenth century, it became an increasingly important marketing center for a vast and growing agricultural hinterland. Market days saw the crowded city even more crowded, as farmers from within a radius of 24 or more kilometers brought their sheep, cows, pigs, vegetables, cider, and other products for direct sale to the townspeople. The High Street Market was continuously enlarged throughout the period until 1736, when it reached from Front Street to Third. By 1745 New Market was opened on Second Street between Pine and Cedar. The next year the Callowhill Market began operation.
Along with market days, the institution of twice-yearly fairs persisted in Philadelphia even after similar trading days had been discontinued in other colonial cities. The fairs provided a means of bringing handmade goods from outlying places to would-be buyers in the city. Linens and stockings from Germantown, for example, were popular items.
Auctions were another popular form of occasional trade. Because of the competition, retail merchants opposed these as well as the fairs. Although governmental attempts to eradicate fairs and auctions were less than successful, the ordinary course of economic development was on the merchants’ side, as increasing business specialization became the order of the day. Export merchants became differentiated from their importing counterparts, and specialty shops began to appear in addition to general stores selling a variety of goods.
One of the reasons Philadelphia’s merchants generally prospered was because the surrounding area was undergoing tremendous economic and demographic growth. They did their business, after all, in the capital city of the province. Not only did they cater to the governor and his circle, but citizens from all over the colony came to the capital for legislative sessions of the assembly and council and the meetings of the courts of justice.
随着费城在十八世纪上半叶从一个小镇发展成为一个城市，它成为一个日益重要的营销中心，面向广阔且不断发展的农业腹地。市场时代，拥挤的城市更加拥挤，因为方圆24公里以内的农民将他们的羊，牛，猪，蔬菜，苹果酒和其他产品直接卖给了市民。高街市场在整个期间不断扩大，直到1736年，从前街到达第三。到1745年，新市场在Pine和Cedar之间的第二街开业。第二年，Callowhill市场开始运营。 随着市场时代的到来，即使在其他殖民城市停止了类似的交易日之后，费城仍然存在每年举办两次的展览会。这些展览会提供了一种将手工制品从外围地方带到城市潜在买家的手段。例如，来自Germantown的亚麻布和长袜是受欢迎的商品。 拍卖是偶尔交易的另一种流行形式。由于竞争，零售商反对这些以及展览会。虽然政府试图根除交易会和拍卖的尝试并不成功，但正常的经济发展过程是在商人一方，因为越来越多的商业专业化成为当时的秩序。出口商人与进口商品差异化，除了销售各种商品的一般商店外，专卖店也开始出现。 费城商人普遍繁荣的原因之一是周边地区正在经历巨大的经济和人口增长。毕竟，他们在该省的首都开展业务。他们不仅迎合了州长和他的圈子，而且来自殖民地各地的公民来到首都参加议会和理事会的立法会议以及法院的会议。