Parrots – AEAS精读 (Y10-12)

Aviculturists, people who raise birds for commercial sale, have not yet learned how to simulate the natural incubation of parrot eggs in the wild. They continue to look for better ways to increase egg production and to improve chick survival rates.
When parrots incubate their eggs in the wild, the temperature and humidity of the nest are controlled naturally. Heat is transferred from the bird's skin to the top portion of the eggshell, leaving the sides and bottom of the egg at a cooler temperature. This temperature gradient may be vital to successful hatching. Nest construction can contribute to this temperature gradient. Nests of loosely arranged sticks, rocks, or dirt are cooler in temperature at the bottom where the egg contacts the nesting material. Such nests also act as humidity regulators by allowing rain to drain into the bottom sections of the nest so that the eggs are not in direct contact with the water. As the water that collects in the bottom of the nest evaporates, the water vapor rises and is heated by the incubating bird, which adds significant humidity to the incubation environment.
In artificial incubation programs, aviculturists remove eggs from the nests of parrots and incubate them under laboratory conditions. Most commercial incubators heat the eggs fairly evenly from top to bottom, thus ignoring the bird's method of natural incubation, and perhaps reducing the viability and survivability of the hatching chicks. When incubators are not used, aviculturists sometimes suspend wooden boxes outdoors to use as nests in which to place eggs. In areas where weather can become cold after eggs are laid, it is very important to maintain a deep foundation of nesting material to act as insulator against the cold bottom of the box. If eggs rest against the wooden bottom in extremely cold weather conditions, they can become chilled to a point where the embryo can no longer survive. Similarly, these boxes should be protected from direct sunlight to avoid high temperatures that are also fatal to the growing embryo. Nesting material should be added in sufficient amounts to avoid both extreme temperature situations mentioned above and assure that the eggs have a soft, secure place to rest. 

为了商业销售而养鸟的养蜂人还没有学会如何模拟野外鹦鹉蛋的自然孵化。他们继续寻找更好的方法来增加产蛋量并提高雏鸡成活率。
   当鹦鹉在野外孵化卵时,巢的温度和湿度自然受到控制。热量从鸟的皮肤转移到蛋壳的顶部,使蛋的侧面和底部处于较冷的温度。这种温度梯度对于成功孵化可能是至关重要的。巢结构可以促成这种温度梯度。松散排列的棒,岩石或污垢的巢在底部的温度较低,其中蛋接触嵌套材料。通过允许雨水排入巢的底部,这样的巢也起到湿度调节器的作用,使得鸡蛋不与水直接接触。随着收集在巢底部的水蒸发,水蒸气上升并被孵化的鸟加热,这给孵化环境增加了显着的湿度。
   在人工孵化计划中,养蜂者从鹦鹉巢中取出卵,并在实验室条件下孵育它们。大多数商业孵化器从上到下相当均匀地加热鸡蛋,因此忽略了鸟类的自然孵化方法,并且可能降低孵化雏鸡的生存能力和生存能力。当不使用孵化器时,养蜂者有时会将木箱悬挂在室外用作放置鸡蛋的巢穴。在产蛋后天气会变冷的地方,保持筑巢材料的深基础作为绝缘体抵抗箱体的冷底是非常重要的。如果鸡蛋在极寒的天气条件下靠在木质底部,它们就会变得冷却到胚胎无法存活的程度。同样,应保护这些盒子免受阳光直射,以避免对生长中的胚胎也是致命的高温。应添加足够量的嵌套材料,以避免上述极端温度情况,并确保鸡蛋具有柔软,安全的休息场所。