Fireplace – aeas精读 (Y10-12)
In seventeenth-century colonial North America, all day-to-day cooking was done in the fireplace. Generally large, fireplaces were planned for cooking as well as for warmth. Those in the Northeast were usually four or five feet high, and in the South, they were often high enough for a person to walk into. A heavy timber called the mantel tree was used as a lintel to support the stonework above the fireplace opening. This timber might be scorched occasionally, but it was far enough in front of the rising column of heat to be safe from catching fire.
Two ledges were built across from each other on the inside of the chimney. On these rested the ends of a “lug pole” from which pots were suspended when cooking. Wood from a freshly cut tree was used for the lug pole, so it would resist heat, but it had to be replaced frequently because it dried out and charred, and was thus weakened. Sometimes the pole broke and the dinner fell into the fire. When iron became easier to obtain, it was used instead of wood for lug poles, and later fireplaces had pivoting metal rods to hang pots from.
Beside the fireplace and built as part of it was the oven. It was made like a small, secondary fireplace with a flue leading into the main chimney to draw out smoke. Sometimes the door of the oven faced the room, but most ovens were built with the opening facing into the fireplace. On baking days (usually once or twice a week) a roaring fire of “oven wood,” consisting of brown maple sticks, was maintained in the oven until its walls were extremely hot. The embers were later removed, bread dough was put into the oven, and the oven was sealed shut until the bread was fully baked.
Not all baking was done in a big oven, however. Also used was an iron “bake kettle,” which looked like a stewpot on legs and which had an iron lid. This is said to have worked well when it was placed in the fireplace, surrounded by glowing wood embers, with more embers piled on its lid.
在十七世纪的北美殖民地，所有的日常烹饪都在壁炉里完成。通常很大，壁炉计划用于烹饪和保暖。在东北部的人通常是四到五英尺高，在南部，他们往往足够高，一个人可以走进去。一块称为壁炉架的重型木材被用作门楣，以支撑壁炉开口上方的石雕。这种木材偶尔可能会被烧焦，但在升高的热柱前面足够远，以防止着火。 两个壁架在烟囱内部相互对接。在这些上面放置一个“凸耳杆”的末端，在烹饪时悬挂盆。来自刚切割的树木的木材用于凸耳杆，因此它会抵抗热量，但它必须经常更换，因为它干燥并烧焦，因此被削弱。有时杆子坏了，晚餐掉进火里。当铁变得更容易获得时，它被用来代替木头用于吊耳杆，后来的壁炉有旋转金属杆来悬挂罐子。 在壁炉旁边，它是烤箱的一部分。它被制成一个小型的二级壁炉，烟道通向主烟囱抽出烟雾。有时烤箱的门面向房间，但大多数烤箱都是在面向壁炉的开口处建造的。在烘烤日（通常每周一次或两次），在烤箱中保持由“棕色枫木棒”组成的“烤炉木”的咆哮火，直到其壁非常热。随后取出余烬，将面包面团放入烤箱中，将烤箱密封，直至面包完全烘烤。 然而，并非所有烘焙都是在大烤箱中进行的。还使用了一个铁“烘烤水壶”，看起来像腿上的炖锅，并有一个铁盖。据说它放在壁炉里时效果很好，周围是发光的木制余烬，盖子上堆着更多的余烬。