AEAS阅读配图

The Art Nouveau style – AEAS精读 (Y10-12)

AEAS阅读配图 - alphonse-mucha-redhead-among-flowers-art-nouveau-artwork

 

The end of the nineteenth century and the early years of the twentieth century were marked by the development of an international Art Nouveau style, characterized by sinuous lines, floral and vegetable motifs, and soft evanescent coloration. The Art Nouveau style was an eclectic one, bringing together elements of Japanese art, motifs of ancient cultures, and natural forms. The glass objects of this style were elegant in outline, although often deliberately distorted, with pale or iridescent surfaces. A favored device of the style was to imitate the iridescent surface seen on ancient glass that had been buried. Much of the Art Nouveau glass produced during the years of its greatest popularity had been generically termed “art glass.” Art glass was intended for decorative purposes and relied for its effect upon carefully chosen color combinations and innovative techniques.

France produced a number of outstanding exponents of the Art Nouveau style; among the most celebrated was Emile Galle (1846-1904). In the United States, Louis Comfort Tiffany (1843-1933) was the most noted exponent of this style, producing a great variety of glass forms and surfaces, which were widely copied in their time and are highly prized today. Tiffany was a brilliant designer, successfully combining ancient Egyptian, Japanese, and Persian motifs.

The Art Nouveau style was a major force in the decorative arts from 1895 until 1915, although its influence continued throughout the mid-1920’s. It was eventually to be overtaken by a new school of thought known as Functionalism that had been present since the turn of the century. At first restricted to a small avant-garde group of architects and designers, Functionalism emerged as the dominant influence upon designers after the First World War. The basic tenet of the movement — that function should determine form — was not a new concept. Soon a distinct aesthetic code evolved: form should be simple, surfaces plain, and any ornament should be based on geometric relationships. This new design concept, coupled with the sharp postwar reactions to the styles and conventions of the preceding decades, created an entirely new public taste which caused Art Nouveau types of glass to fall out of favor. The new taste demanded dramatic effects of contrast, stark outline and complex textural surfaces.

 

19世纪末和20世纪初是国际新艺术风格发展的标志,其特点是曲折的线条,花卉和蔬菜图案,以及柔和而易逝的色彩。新艺术风格兼收并蓄,融合了日本艺术的元素、古代文化的主题和自然形式。这种风格的玻璃对象在轮廓上是优雅的,虽然经常故意扭曲,与苍白或彩虹表面。这种风格的一个受欢迎的装置是模仿被埋在地下的古代玻璃上的彩虹色表面。在其最受欢迎的那些年里生产的新艺术玻璃大多被笼统地称为“艺术玻璃”。艺术玻璃用于装饰目的,其效果依赖于精心选择的颜色组合和创新的技术。

法国产生了一批杰出的新艺术风格的倡导者;其中最著名的是埃米尔·加勒(Emile Galle, 1846-1904)。在美国,路易斯·康福特·蒂芙尼(Louis Comfort Tiffany, 1843-1933)是这种风格最著名的代表人物,他生产了各种各样的玻璃形式和表面,这些在当时被广泛复制,如今受到高度重视。蒂芙尼是一位杰出的设计师,成功地结合了古埃及、日本和波斯的图案。

从1895年到1915年,新艺术风格是装饰艺术的主要力量,尽管它的影响持续到整个20世纪20年代中期。它最终被一种称为功能主义的新学派所取代,这种学派自世纪之交以来就一直存在。功能主义最初局限于一小群前卫的建筑师和设计师,在第一次世界大战后成为对设计师的主要影响。运动的基本原则——功能决定形式——并不是一个新概念。很快,一种独特的美学准则形成了:形式应该是简单的,表面应该是简单的,任何装饰都应该基于几何关系。这种新的设计理念,加上战后对过去几十年的风格和惯例的强烈反应,创造了一种全新的公众品味,导致新艺术风格的玻璃失宠。新口味要求强烈的对比效果,鲜明的轮廓和复杂的纹理表面。